Badge
Badge
Badge
Badge
Badge
Badge
Badge
Badge

Defending Drug Crime Prosecution - Part 2

Ketamine

Ketamine is a rave drug. This drug is most commonly used as a veterinary tranquilizer. Ketamine is also know as Special K, and other street names. Keep reading to learn the effects of ketamine use and more information on ketamine (Special K) in this article.

Ketamine is common at raves, where it is often mixed with ecstasy to produce a hallucinogenic effect. Ketamine is also sometimes used as a date rape drug, since it can “freeze” a victim for a short period of time, making her or him mostly unaware of the surroundings and detached with limited movement. Ketamine is most often obtained through smuggling from Mexico or from theft at a veterinary office. It cannot be obtained legally for home use in any circumstance.

Street Names for Ketamine

There are several names that ketamine is known by. Some of them are trade names, used by veterinarians and medical professionals. These trade names are ketalar, ketajet and ketaset. There are also street names, used by users and dealers. Here is a list of street names for ketamine:

Special K, Ket, Vitamin K, Super acid, Baby food, Special LA Coke, Jet, God.

When one uses ketamine, one goes to what users call the “K-hole” or to “K-land.” A user is known as a “K-head.”

Effects of Ketamine Use

Most ketamine users feel as though they are having an out of body experience. Vivid imagery is common to ketamine use. Combined with ecstasy, the feeling is supposed to be enhanced. Ketamine is a hallucinogen that produces generally mellow effects. However, as with many hallucinogens, flashbacks are likely with ketamine exposure. In fact, ketamine can create larger problems with flashbacks than other hallucinogens. Many ketamine users remain convinced that they have met God or other heavenly beings. Mechanical buzzing in the ears, amnesia and effects similar to intoxication are common. Additionally, coordination and judgment can be affected for hours after the usage.

Some of the more sinister effects of the use of Special K include dizziness, nausea, anxiety, insomnia, blurred vision and ataxia. Short term memory loss and shortened attention span are also effects of Ket use. Ketamine use also causes problems when used chronically or in case of an overdose. Cardiac arrest and cessation of breathing are two of the more dangerous effects. Both of these can lead to brain damage and death in cases of large doses of Special K or continued use. It is also important to note that short-term immobilization is an effect of ketamine use.

Getting Special K

Ketamine is most readily available at raves. The drug is not produced as a clandestine drug, since it is complicated to make and the ingredients are usually not close to hand. Most people obtain ketamine for sale by stealing it. It is produced for veterinary and limited human use (strictly controlled) in liquid form, but can be dried (using a microwave, oven or the air) and ground into a powder form. When used illicitly, Special K is most often inhaled. It is not a drug that vets even “prescribe” for home use for pets. It is legally only used in strictly medical or veterinary settings.

Date Rape Drugs

Date rape drugs, such as GHB and rohypnol are substances specifically designed to impair and immobilize victims. Drugs used by sexual predators to make a victim less resistant are called date rape drugs. Keep reading to learn to protect yourself from date rape drugs.

There are three main date rape drugs: GHB, rohypnol and ketamine. Each of these drugs has such a slight taste that it is likely to go unnoticed, especially in flavored drinks such as soda and alcohol. All are clear and most commonly found in liquid form. There is no smell to warn victims, either.

GHB

GHB can induce amnesia, which is why it is one of the most popular date rape drugs. Victims do not have a clear memory of what happened. Additionally, it can be produced using common ingredients at home, which makes it cheap and easy to come by for sexual predators. Visual problems, dizziness, drowsiness and a dream-like state are effects of GHB. After the initial effects wear off (in about 15 minutes), nausea and vomiting can follow. Repeated exposure, as well as higher doses, can affect the body with the following problems:

Seizures, Slowing heart rate, Breathing problems, Coma, Death

GHB is legal only in very specific cases of narcolepsy.

Rohypnol

Rohypnol can also cause amnesia, as well as black out and confusion. Slurred speech, as well as other symptoms associated with drunkenness (such as decreased motor skills and visual distortion), are effects of rohypnol. Many victims mistakenly think that they are merely “terribly drunk,” when in fact they are victims of a date rape drug. A lower blood pressure can result, as well as extreme sleepiness. Stomach problems are very unpleasant side effects of rohypnol. Roypnol, though used in Europe and Mexico as an anesthetic, it is not legal for any use in the United States.

Ketamine

Ketamine, or “Special K” is a hallucinogen that can make the entire experience of date rape even more sinister and scary. Sight and sound are often distorted, and there is a loss of sense of time and identity, associated with feelings of having an out of body experience. Ketamine temporarily immobilizes victims so that they do not have proper muscle control. Most victims actually remain conscious throughout, but feel out of control because they cannot move. Ketamine can also cause other problems: nausea, trouble breathing, convulsions, coma and death. Ketamine is legal as an anesthetic, mainly for animals (and in some rare cases for humans). Most illicit ketamine is actually stolen from veterinary clinics.

Anabolic Steroids

History of Anabolic Steroids

Properly called anabolic/androgenic steroids, but also known as anabolic steroids or simply steroids, these drugs are often used in baseball and body building. Keep reading to discover the most commonly abused steroids, and history of anabolic steroids.

Anabolic/androgenic steroids are used medically to promote the growth of skeletal muscle – their anabolic effects and male sexual characteristics – their androgenic effects. When a male’s body produces too little testosterone, resulting conditions such as delayed puberty and some kinds of impotence, as well as body wasting in patients who have AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) can be treated by administration of anabolic steroids (as they will be referred to here).

In the United States, anabolic steroids are a prescription medication; that is, they are not sold over the counter (OTC). Drugs or substances that are not sold OTC are divided into five schedules, labeled with Roman numerals. Schedule I is for drugs for which there is no currently acceptable medical usage in the U.S. It includes, for example, heroin, LSD, and marijuana. For Schedules II -V, all drugs with medical use, the least restricted is Schedule V, which includes medications like cough medicines with codeine; the most restrictive is Schedule II, which includes highly addictive drugs like morphine, cocaine, and methadone. Anabolic steroids are placed in Schedule III.

The anabolic steroids that are most commonly abused according to the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) are:

  • Brand Name Chemical Substance Method of Administration
  • Anadrol oxymetholone oral
  • Deca-Durabolin nandrolone decanoate injectable
  • Depo-Testosterone testosterone cypionate injectable
  • Dianabol methandrostenolone oral
  • Durabolin nandrolone phenpriopionate injectable
  • Equipoise boldenone undecylenate injectable
  • Oxandrin oxandrolone oral
  • Winstrol stanozolol oral

Anabolic steroids are not the same as steroidal supplements, which are OTC substances legally available in stores such as health food stores. They include dehydroepian-drosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione, referred to in street talk as Andro. These supplements can be converted by the body into testosterone, but their effects and attendant side effects have not received the research attention that anabolic steroids have.

Anabolic Steroids History

The synthetic compounds called anabolic steroids were developed mainly as a treatment for low testosterone production (hypogonadism) that inhibits normal growth and development, as well as sexual function. This occurred in the late 1930s. During testing, the ability of anabolic steroids to encourage skeletal muscle growth in lab animals was noted. This led to the use of anabolic steroids by athletes including bodybuilders and weightlifters, and – of recent note (July, 2006) – baseball, track and field, and cycling. Suspicion surrounding Barry Bonds and his trainer Greg Anderson, Justin Gatlin, and Floyd Landis – respective practitioners of those three sports, are currently in the public eye as accusations about the use of anabolic steroids and other performance enhancing drugs circulate.

Concerned by the continuing use of these drugs, Congress passed the Anabolic Steroids Act of 2004, which was signed into law in October 2004 and which amended the Anabolic Steroids Control Act of 1990. Changes include modifying the definition of anabolic steroids to include additional substances, directing a review of the sentencing guidelines for offenses, and amending guidelines to allow for increased penalties. Also mandated are scientifically-based school programs to helps convey the harmful effects of anabolic steroid abuse.

Oxycodone

Oxycodone is an opiate, referred to medically as opioids and also called narcotics, and one of the important pain killers available in medical practice. This article contains information on the history of pain killers and leads up to Oxycodone and its history.

Pain killers are usually developed and marketed by pharmaceutical companies for general or specific healthcare applications. They are divided in the industry by whether they are available over the counter (OTC) or require a prescription, and all opiates, including oxycodone, are legally available only by prescription.

The DEA Drug Schedules

Drugs or substances that are not sold OTC – and therefore all opiates – are divided into five schedules, labeled with Roman numerals. Scheduling is based on evaluation of scientific and medical properties, as well as the following considerations:

  • Does the substance or drug have potential for abuse?
  • If there is evidence of abuse, what is the pattern of abuse, extent of abuse, and scope of abuse?
  • Is there evidence that it is currently being abused or diverted from legitimate use?
  • Is the substance or drug closely related to another drug or substance already known to have potential for abuse?
  • How extensive is the current knowledge of the substance’s action?
  • Does the substance pose a threat to public health?

Schedule I is for drugs for which there is no currently acceptable medical usage in the U.S. It includes, for example, the opioid heroin, as well as LSD and marijuana.

For Schedules II-V, all drugs with medical use:

  • Schedule V, the least restricted, includes drugs or substances with a low potential for abuse, and limited effects when abused. It includes medications like cough medicines with the opioid codeine.
  • Schedule IV, the next least restricted, includes drugs that are less addictive and potentially damaging than Schedule III, for example, the opioid marketed as Darvon®.
  • Schedule III, which follows the same pattern, includes codeine and hydrocodone with aspirin or acetaminophen.
  • Schedule II, the most restrictive of the legally available drugs, includes the opioids morphine, cocaine, and methadone, and also oxycodone and its combination forms with aspirin and acetaminophen.

Oxycodone used alone and with aspirin and acetaminophen and with immediate and controlled release, is used to manage moderate to severe pain. The types are:

  • Controlled/Extended release: OxyContin®
  • Immediate release: OxyIR®, OxyFast®, Oxydose®, Roxicodone Intensol®, Roxicodone®
  • With aspirin: Endodan®, Percodan®
  • With acetaminophen: Endocet®, Percocet®, Roxicet®, Roxilox®, Tylox®
History of Opioids Leading up to Oxycodone

Grown as early as 3400 B.C., opium was cultivated by the Sumerians, Assyrians, Babylonians, and Egyptians. Opium was used as a narcotic by Hippocrates, introduced to Persia and India by Alexander the Great, and used as painkillers by Paracelsus during the Renaissance. In 1803, German Friedrich Sertuerner discovered morphine, and in 1843, a Scottish doctor, Dr. Alexander Wood, first administered it by injection with a syringe. Heroin was first synthesized in 1874, by an English scientist, C. R. Wright, and first sold by The Bayer Company in 1898. The patent for controlled release oxycodone was given in 1993. OxyContin entered the market in 1995, and its first full year of sales was 1996.

Opiates Opiates and Their History

Opiates are prescription drugs that are not sold over the counter. This article will define what opiates are and offers the history of opiate use and abuse. Keep reading for more information and history associated with opiates such as Codeine and Hydrocodone.

Opiates, referred to medically as opioids and also called narcotics, make up many of the important pain killers available in medical practice. Pain killers are usually developed and marketed by pharmaceutical companies for general or specific healthcare applications. They are divided in the industry by whether they are available over the counter (OTC) or require a prescription, and all opiates are legally available only by prescription. Both categories of drugs can be abused.

Drugs or substances that are not sold OTC – and therefore all opiates – are divided into five schedules, labeled with Roman numerals. Scheduling is based on evaluation of scientific and medical properties, as well as the following considerations:

  • Does the substance or drug have potential for abuse?
  • If there is evidence of abuse, what is the pattern of abuse, extent of abuse, and scope of abuse?
  • Is there evidence that it is currently being abused or diverted from legitimate use?
  • Is the substance or drug closely related to another drug or substance already known to have potential for abuse?
  • How extensive is the current knowledge of the substance’s action?
  • Does the substance pose a threat to public health?

Schedule I is for drugs for which there is no currently acceptable medical usage in the U.S. It includes, for example, the opioid heroin, as well as LSD and marijuana.

For Schedules II-V, all drugs with medical use:

  • Schedule V, the least restricted, includes drugs or substances with a low potential for abuse, and limited effects when abused. It includes medications like cough medicines with the opioid codeine.
  • Schedule IV, the next least restricted, includes drugs that are less addictive and potentially damaging than Schedule III, for example, the opioid marketed as Darvon®.
  • Schedule III, which follows the same pattern, includes codeine and hydrocodone with aspirin or acetaminophen.
  • Schedule II, the most restrictive of the legally available drugs, includes the opioids morphine, cocaine, and methadone.

Here are some of the most often used opiates. There is a group of medicines used to treat more severe pain that combine NSAIDs and opioids. Combinations are not included in the chart.

Opioids
  • Anileridine Methadone
  • Buprenoprhine Morphine
  • Butorphanol Nalbuphine
  • Codeine Opium
  • Hydrocodone Oxycodone
  • Hydromorphone Oxymorphone
  • Levorphanol Pentazocine
  • Meperidine Propoxyphene
History of Opioids

Grown as early as 3400 B.C., opium was cultivated by the Sumerians, Assyrians, Babylonians, and Egyptians. Opium was used as a narcotic by Hippocrates, introduced to Persia and India by Alexander the Great, and used as painkillers by Paracelsus during the Renaissance. In 1803, German Friedrich Sertuerner discovered morphine, and in 1843, a Scottish doctor, Dr. Alexander Wood, first administered it by injection with a syringe. Heroin was first synthesized in 1874, by an English scientist, C. R. Wright, and first sold by The Bayer Company in 1898.

Inhalants

More than a million people used inhalants to get high just last year. By the time a student reaches the 8th grade, one in five will have used inhalants. Keep reading to learn what types of inhalants are being used, the health effects of inhalants, and inhalant use statistics.

Inhalants are drugs that are especially insidious exactly because they are so easily and legally obtained. An inhalant is basically a chemical compound that produces a vapor that can be inhaled, and that can produce a mind-altering effect. Most inhalants are legal substances bought at the grocery store, such as aerosol hairspray, white-out and markers. Even though they are easily bought and used, inhalant use can have some fairly severe effects. While inhalant use is mostly confined to teenagers, 22.8 million Americans have used inhalants, including adults.

Types of inhalants

There are four main types of inhalants: volatile solvents, gases, aerosols and nitrites.

Volatile solvents. Inhalants that fall under this category are items that are liquid, but that vaporize (put off a sort of “gas” or “strong smell”) at room temperature. Paint thinners, correction fluid, markers, gasoline and dry-cleaning fluids are all volatile solvent inhalants.

Gases. Gases are pretty much in vapor form at room temperature and otherwise. Sources for household gases used as inhalants include butane lighters, refrigerants, whipped cream dispensers and propane tanks. Medical gases can also be used as gas inhalants: chloroform, ether and nitrous oxide.

Aerosols. These are sprays that have propellants that push the product out. Spray paint, hairspray, vegetable oil cook sprays, air fresheners and fabric protection sprays are all examples of aerosol inhalants.

Nitrites. These, commonly known as “poppers” or “snappers” are a little harder to get. They include such inhalants as isobutyl nitrite, isoamyl nitrite and cyclohexyl nitrite.

Health Effects of Inhalant use

There are very real health effects associated with inhalant use. About 9,275 emergency room visits are due to inhalant use every year, but that does not fully allow for a grasp of the problem. The effects of inhalant use tend to add up, as a user becomes addicted. One of the fastest effects is a rapid high that is very similar to the feeling of being drunk: excitation, followed by drowsiness, lightheadedness and agitation. Nearly all inhalants can produce loss of sensation and unconsciousness when enough is inhaled. Continued inhalant use can lead to heart, liver, kidney and lung damage. Depression, disorientation, unhealthy weight loss, irritability and lack of coordination are all effects stemming from prolonged inhalant abuse.

Inhalant use Statistics

Inhalant use represents a small portion of drug addiction (only 0.1 percent of treatment admissions), but it is nevertheless very real. Inhalant abuse is primarily noted among teenagers and young adults. Here are statistics regarding inhalant use:

  • 68.7 percent of treated inhalant users are male
  • 67.4 percent of inhalant users admitted to treatment are white
  • The average age of someone admitted to treatment programs for inhalants is 24
  • Nearly 2.3 million people reported inhalant use in the past year
  • About 638,000 people admit to using inhalants in the past month
  • Street names for inhalants
  • There are various names for inhalants on the street. Here are some of them:
  • Air blast, Poor man’s pot, Climax = isobutyl nitrate, Gluey = sniffing glue, Buzz bomb = nitrous oxide
  • The act of using inhalants is designated as gladding or bagging, and an inhalant user is galled a huffer.
GHB Usage, Analogs, Effects

Gama Hydroxybutric Acid, commonly known as GHB, is a highly addictive drug that is illegal in the United States. Find out more on how GHB is used, its analogs, its effects, and street names for GHB in this article. Keep reading for more on GHB usage, analogs, and effects.

In some countries GHB is used as a sleep aid, and many European countries recognize it as an anesthetic. However, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration outlawed nearly all use of the drug in 1990 for the United States. It is still used to treat a very rare form narcolepsy; this is its only approved use in the U.S. While GHB is used recreationally by some, especially on the rave party scene, it is most commonly known as a date rape drug that helps sedate victims for sexual predation.

GHB (Gama Hydroxybutric Acid) analogs

GHB also has several analogs, including GBL and BD that act as GHB substitutes. These are just as dangerous as GHB, and affect the body in ways similar to the way GHB affects the body. GHB and its analogs can be produced using the solvents found in paint stripper and some of chemicals found in adhesives and plastics. These can be dangerous, and, of course, one never truly knows what goes into any illicit drug created in a clandestine lab, as almost all GHB in the U.S. is produced. GHB and its analogs are difficult to detect, since they metabolize quickly. If you have been using GHB recreationally, or if you feel that you are a victim of the drug used for date rape, it is important to let medical personnel know as soon as possible so that they can test for any traces of it.

Effects of GHB use

Most GHB comes in the form of a liquid, so it is easy to use in a drink. Additionally, the salty or soapy taste can easily be masked by use in a drink. Those that use it recreationally either put GHB in their drinks or apply the liquid to their tongues. GHB can also be found in powder or tablet form, although these are not as common as the liquid form. Powder and tablet form GHB is usually taken orally, and it is mostly for recreational users on the club and rave scenes. The effects of GHB are relatively quick – usually within 15 minutes. The initial effects include euphoria and relaxation, as well as visual disturbances (which is why it is used by some for recreation). However, later effects include drowsiness, dizziness, respiratory problems, amnesia, coma and seizures. Most effects depend on the individual. The possibility for amnesia and the extreme drowsiness and dizziness are what make GHB ideal as a date rape drug.

Long term use of GHB (usually for recreation purposes) include seizure and coma. When combined with other drugs, difficulty breathing can occur, leading possibly to death. Withdrawal symptoms are usually severe for addicted GHB users: tremors, anxiety, sweating and insomnia.

Street Names for GHB – Gama Hydroxybutric Acid

GHB comes by a few street names. These are interchangeable with GHB analogs as well. G, Caps, Georgia home boy, Grievous bodily harm, Goop, Liquid X, Scoop,

Client Reviews
★★★★★
"I found myself in criminal trouble, that I wasn't guilty of and thanks to Mr. Steinberg's dedication and hard work, right before we we're looking at having to continue on to trial level Mr. Steinberg was able to use his vast knowledge of the law and his many respected years in the system to find a way to show my innocence. After a very unsure and somewhat difficult time for me, this very skilled and knowledgeable attorney was able to find the right path to take to reach a dismissal in my case. For that I can't tell you how much I appreciate his representation and his excellent understanding and helpful personality. He's a great man and an even better attorney but don't misunderstand him, he is an attorney not a therapist. Thanks H." Josh
★★★★★
"Working with Michael Steinberg was a wonderful experience. Truly people need to know that he is a expert in what he does. His personality is compassionate, intellectual, and down to earth. I glean that Michael is fun to be around. In the time I worked with him, it was a pleasure to be around him. As for my case, the outcome was amazing and couldn’t be better. He has made my life more manageable because of the outcome of my case. I’ve worked with other lawyers in the Denver area. He is superior to them all. If you’re in need of a lawyer and you come across Mr. Steinberg look no further he’s going to be the one you need. Thank you again Michael." Renee Taylor
★★★★★
"Being someone who had never been in trouble choosing the law office of Michael Steinberg was absolutely the most amazing decision I've made. The way Micheal handles these situations is absolutely amazing! He gives thorough explanation on what your options actually are and makes sure you understand them from top to bottom. He speaks to you like a human and not a dollar bill sign. I'm out in CO alone my entire family is out of state so not only was he my lawyer but he was my support system. He new how scared I was and he was kind and comforting but straight and to the point when he needed to be. I'm very grateful to him. And I thank him through and through. You would be making a huge mistake not to choose this law firm." Bryonda Copiskey