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Colorado Criminal Law: Drug Crimes Prosecution – Understanding the Drugs – Their History and Schedules

To fully understand how Colorado Drug Crimes are prosecuted in the Courts of Colorado – one must understand the drugs and how they have been “scheduled” by the Federal Government.

Drugs or substances that are not sold over the counter (OTC) are divided into five schedules, labeled with Roman numerals.

Schedule I is for drugs for which there is no currently acceptable medical usage in the U.S. It includes, for example, heroin, LSD, and marijuana.

Schedules II-V, represent all drugs with some medical use.

The least restricted is Schedule V, which includes medications like cough medicines with codeine; the most restrictive is Schedule II, which includes highly addictive drugs like morphine, cocaine, and methadone.

Cocaine

The Coca Shrub containing the alkaloid cocaine dates back millions of years. Historically the coca leaf was used as a mild stimulant; the leaf was chewed or chopped and kept on the gums creating a stimulatory effect similar to several cups of espresso. The Incas in Peru used the coca leaf in every part of their lives, using the juice of the leaf much as Americans use Coffee today. The stimulant Cocaine comes from the coca bush containing the alkaloid cocaine. The coca bush grows mainly on the slopes of the Andes Mountains in South America. However, there are a few bushes growing in the Amazon Jungle and on the island of Java in Indonesia. Though the growing area is relatively small, South America cultivates 97% of the world’s crop, while North America consumes 70%.

In 1861, Albert Nieman, a graduate student in Gottingen Germany isolated cocaine from the other chemicals in the coca leaf producing a chemical that is 200 times more powerful that drug produced an intense rush followed by ecstatic feelings and a powerful physical stimulation when injected, smoked snorted, absorbed through the gums, or drunk. However, It was not until twenty years later that the stage for widespread abuse of the drug manifested. Two factors played a roll in promoting the use of cocaine.

The physician Karl Koller discovered the anesthetic properties within the drug

Sigmund Freud promoted the usage of refined cocaine for various ailments such as:

Depression Gastric disorders, Asthma, Morphine and/or alcohol addiction.

These optimistic attitudes concerning cocaine were made early on in the experimental stages. Later, when the drug became more widely available, the true nature and liabilities became obvious.

The process of refining cocaine from the coca bush takes four to five steps:

Soaking the leaves in Lime for a few days.

Adding gasoline, kerosene or acetone to extract the nitrogenous alkaloids.

Discarding the waste leaves and adding in sulfuric or hydrochloric acid.

Mixing in lime and ammonia.

Last, adding a number of chemicals to separate the cocaine hydrochloride from the paste.

Cocaine on the Street

Cocaine on the street is rarely pure. Most often, the street dealer will add in adulterants to lower the purity of the drug from 80-90% pure to around 60% pure. Usually, this is to pay for their habit and/or make a few extra dollars. These additives can include:

Baby laxatives, Lactose, Vitamin B, Aspirin, Mannitol, Sugar, Tetracaine • a topical anesthetic, Flower, Talcum powder

When the adultered drug is used intravenously, the additives are also placed into the bloodstream along with bacteria and viruses. Therefore, the hepatitis C infection rate for IV drug users is 50% to 90%. In addition, the use of cocaine also increases the risk of various other conditions especially AIDS because it increases viral infections and lowers CD4 counts.

Marijuana

Marijuana History

Marijuana history dates back at least 10,000 years. The cannabis plant was used as medicine well before people started smoking marijuana. Read this article to find information on marijuana history, marijuana uses, and streeet names for marijuana.

The Cannabis plant also known as Hemp or Marijuana date back at least 10,000 years. The plants cultivation spread from its probable origin in China or Central Asia to almost every country in the world. Historically, Cannabis was prized as a source of fiber and oil, for its editable seeds and medicinal properties, producing materials such as:

Rope, Cloth, Roofing material, Floor coverings, and Paper.

Archaeologists have found traces of hemp fibers in various objects dating back as far as 4000 B.C. Moreover, the Chinese Emperor Shen-Nung , in 2737 B.C., studied and experimented with Cannabis as a medicine and recorded his studies reporting that, “Cannabis is not only a medication but also a substance with stupefying and hallucinogenic properties.”

Over the centuries Cannabis has been recommend for ailments such as:

Constipation, Rheumatism, Absentmindedness, Female disorders, Malaria, Beriberi, Wasting diseases.

The Scythians living around 500 BC threw Cannabis on hot stones placed in small tents and inhaled the vapors. Then, in India, the psychoactive properties of the plant established it as one of the five sacred plants giving long life, visions and freedom from distress. Later in 200 A.D., Cannabis was recommended as a painkiller for surgery.

While some botanists claim Cannabis sativa is the only true species of the genus Cannabis, many others agree on three distinct species of the plant:

Cannabis sativa – the most common species used as Marijuana

Cannabis indica – the source of most of the worlds hashish

Cannabis ruderalis

Cannabis sativa grows in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions. A typical plant will produce

1-5 lbs of buds and smokable leaves containing high concentrations of the psychedelic resin “THC” the major active chemical in Marijuana causing mind-altering effects. Cannabis indica is a shorter plant and generally used for it’s fiber and most of the world’s hashish. Cannabis ruderalis is a small thin plant that has few psychoactive components.

The term “Marijuana” is the Mexican word for Cannabis and describes the mixture of dried, shredded leaves, stems, seeds and flowers from the psychoactive species Cannabis Sativa. Whereas “Hemp” is the term generally used to describe the species high in fiber content. And “Hashish” is the sticky resin pressed into cakes.

Marijuana has many street names:

Pot, Buds, Herb, Joint, Chronic, Dank, The kind Grass, Ganja, Charas, Sens, Weed,Dope, Refer, Hash Oil, Boom, Mary Jane, MJ, Gangster, Sinsemilla, Maui wowie, Humboldt green, BC, bud, Buddha Thai, 420.

The effects of marijuana can act as a stimulant as well as a depressant depending on the variety and amount of chemical absorbed into the brain as well as where and when it is used and the personality of the user. Therefore, the effects can be unpredictable.

Some Effects of Marijuana:

Induces a feeling of mental separation from the environment, Drowsiness, Aloofness, Sedation, Some pain control, Produces a feeling of déjà vu, Distortion of the senses, Touch, Sight, Hearing, Time and depth,

Signs of marijuana usage include:

Bloodshot eyes, Coughing from lung irritation, Increase in appetite, Loss of muscular coordination, Dizziness, Giddiness, Users laugh at anything, funny or not, Acute thirst, Anxiety, Paranoia, Panic attacks, Difficulty retaining memory

Long term effects of marijuana use:

Chronic bronchitis,Increased risk of cancer, Slows learning, Frequent pneumonia, Infertility, Weakened immune system, Amotivational syndrome, Users loose interest in the future and stop caring,

LSD and Hallucinogens

LSD History

Lysergic acid diethylamide, known as LSD, is the most potent of the hallucinogens. This article contains information on LSD effects, LSD trips (or acid trips), the founder of LSD, the development of LSD, and LSD history.

LSD has the most unpredictable psychological effects including delusions and hallucinations, which are serious distortions in reality perception, LSD trips can be really good or really bad. Hallucinations may be aural and tactile, as well as visual. While it is not addictive, LSD does create tolerance, so that repeat users may need to take more to achieve the results previously achieved with less.

Drugs or substances that are not sold over the counter (OTC) are divided into five schedules, labeled with Roman numerals. Schedule I is for drugs for which there is no currently acceptable medical usage in the U.S. It includes, for example, heroin and marijuana. For Schedules II-V, all drugs with medical use, the least restricted is Schedule V, which includes medications like cough medicines with codeine; the most restrictive is Schedule II, which includes highly addictive drugs like morphine, cocaine, and methadone. LSD is placed in Schedule I.

The description of the origins of LSD is given by its discoverer, Swiss chemist Albert Hoffmann, in his manuscript LSD – My Problem Child. During researches into ergot, a fungus, for a pharmaceutical company, it became necessary to create lysergic acid synthetically. Because it was unstable, he created a number of different compounds with it. The twenty-fifth of these lysergic acid compounds, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD-25) was produced in 1938.

Because LSD-25 was not of immediate interest, testing was discontinued. Five years later, in 1943, convinced that it might have some additional use, Hofmann created another sample. And though he was meticulously careful, he had a very strange experience that day – a combination of restlessness and slight dizziness, which passed into a hallucinatory state that was very pleasant and lasted about 2 hours.

Hofman tentatively identified the experience as resulting from a small amount of LSD-25 being absorbed through his skin. But to be sure, he set out to test LSD-25 3 days later by ingesting some purposely, inducing the first purposeful LSD trip, and the first “bad trip” as well. However, after a period of terror in which he thought he’d been taken over by a demon, the pleasant state of the first time returned, again with kaleidoscopic images, etc.

LSD first came to the U.S. in 1949, and was used as an experimental drug in the 1950s and 60s to treat alcoholism, among other purposes. It reportedly was sold on the street beginning in 1963, and as increasing numbers of reports recorded adverse effects, first California in 1966 and then the federal government in 1967 restricted its use.

Heroin

Heroin History

Heroin is an addictive drug, and heroin addiction is a serious problem in America. This article contains information on heroin history, founders of heroin, heroin uses, heroin effects, major producers of heroin, street names for heroin, and heroin statistics.

Recent studies suggest a shift from injecting heroin to snorting or smoking because of increased purity and the misconception that these forms are safer.

Heroin is the most addictive plant-derived drug.

In 1805 a German pharmacist, Frederick W. Serturner isolated morphine from opium, finding that the isolated compound was 10 times as strong as the original drug. Then in 1874, a British chemist C.R. Alder Wright refined heroin from morphine, in an attempt to find an effective painkiller without the addictive properties of morphine. Not much was done with the new drug until 1898 when an employee of Bayer and Company promoted heroin for medical purposes such as:

Coughs, Chest Pain, Tuberculosis, Pneumonia.

Unfortunately, heroin crosses the blood-brain barrier in a rapid and dramatic fashion. Therefore, the rush and euphoria from this drug comes on fast and intense. This caused a subculture of compulsive heroin users in the twentieth century. In fact, estimates suggest that around one million people abused opium, morphine and heroin shortly after the turn of the century.

The development of the hypodermic needle in 1853 increased the drugs use. Initially opiate’s were inserted just under the skin by injecting them subcutaneously. However, users found that intravenous use placed high concentrations of the drug directly into the bloodstream through the veins.

It takes 15-30 seconds for an injected opiate to affect the central nervous system.

A delay of 5-8 minutes occurs when injected just under the skin (subcutaneously) this is known as Skin popping

Muscling

The waves of immigrants from Europe introduced the habit of snorting heroin known as “sniffing” also called “insufflation and intranasal use”. This method of use places the drug into the nasal capillaries and then the central nervous system in about 5-8 minutes. Moreover heroin addicts were split evenly between “sniffers and shooters” until around the 1920’s.

Currently there are an estimated 120,000 to 800,000 heroin abusers and approximately 3.1 million Americans have tried heroin. In the United States most heroin comes from Mexico and Colombia. In addition, the U.S. consumes only 3% of the world’s supply.

The major producers of heroin are:

The Golden Crescent •Southwest Asian heroin from Iran, Turkey, Lebanon, Afghanistan and

Pakistan is known as “Persian brown” or “Perze” and can be more than 90% pure

The Golden Triangle – the second largest producer and exporter of heroin produces what is known as China White and can be up to 99% pure.

Mexico – Since the 1940’s Mexico has been a major supplier of heroin in the United States producing light or dark brown heroin.

In the 1980’s a new form of Mexican heroin known as “Tar” or “Black Tar” took over a large part of the market. Tar Heroin is potent, 40 to 80% pure, containing more impurities than the Asian refinement of the drug and costs around $20 to $25 for a small chunk. Tar Heroin is sold as a gummy pasty substance rather than in the usual powder form. It dissolves readily in water and is more likely to be smoked. It is also called:

Chapapote, Puta, Goma, Chiva, Puro

Some street names for Heroin include:

H, Smack, Junk, Horse, Fix, Dope, Brown, Dog, Nod, China White, Black Tar, AIP, Al Capone, Antifreeze, Big doodig, China cat, Hard candy, Witch hazel, Tootsie roll

Methamphetamine

Meth History

Methamphetamine – commonly referred to as meth but also known by the brand name, Methedrine® – is an addictive stimulant. Methamphetamines date back as far as 1919. Keep reading for more information on meth facts and meth history.

Related chemically to amphetamines, Methamphetamine does have some narrow medical uses: it is sometimes used to treat narcolepsy – a disorder in which the person falls suddenly into a deep sleep, attention deficit disorder, and as a short-term therapy for obesity, so while it has a high potential for abuse, it is available for legal use only through a non-refillable prescription.

It is important not to confuse methamphetamines with other drugs that have “meth” in their names: dymethzine and methatrial (injectable steroids) and methyltestosterone (an oral steroid); and ecstasy and its “relatives” which are

Ecstasy – 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine

MDA – 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine

MDEA – 3,4-Methylenedioxy-N-Ethylamphetamine

Since, according to the Office of National Drug Control Policy, Methedrine® is used on the street to refer either to broad amphetamines (of which methamphetamine is one, but not the only one) and also to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy), there is obviously some confusion in the identification of these substances among people who use them, and care must therefore be taken in identifying what “meth use” or “Methedrine® use” actually means.

Drugs or substances that are not sold over the counter (OTC) are divided into five schedules, labeled with Roman numerals. Schedule I is for drugs for which there is no currently acceptable medical usage in the U.S. It includes, for example, heroin, LSD, and marijuana. For Schedules II-V, all drugs with medical use, the least restricted is Schedule V, which includes medications like cough medicines with codeine; the most restrictive is Schedule II, which includes highly addictive drugs like morphine, cocaine, and methadone. Methamphetamine is classified as Schedule II.

The history of methamphetamine begins with the synthesis of amphetamines, according to “Methamphetamine: What we know about it, What we’re doing about it,” published by the Alberta (Canada) Alcohol and Drug Abuse Commission (AADAC) in 2006. Amphetamines were synthesized for the first time in 1887 by a Romanian chemist, Lazar Edeleanu, at the University of Berlin. Methamphetamine itself was first synthesized in 1919 by a Japanese research, A. Ogata and came to market in the 1930s as Bennzedrine®, an OTC inhaler for congestion.

Stimulant effects were reported in 1933 and amphetamine-related psychosis in 1938. This led to a change so that amphetamines required a prescription, beginning in 1939. In the 1940s, amphetamines were used to treat a variety of conditions. Methedrine® was released, and both amphetamines and methamphetamine were used to help World War II soldiers stay awake. The addictiveness of methamphetamine became clear after the war ended and the military supply of the substance was made publicly available in Japan.

Nevertheless, Methedrine® was joined by Dexedrine® in the 1950s, and both were used for several ills, as well as to enhance performance for athletes and people who needed to stay awake, such as truck drivers.

The sixties saw a surge in use, and the seventies included a crackdown, with supplies dropping, beginning with the Controlled Substances Act of 1970. In the eighties, a new method of production was invented, increasing availability again.

Use grew through the nineties, with most of it coming from illegal laboratories, and therefore sometimes being of questionable quality. In the early 2000s, the number of laboratory seizures in the Northeastern U.S. alone was near to or over 100 and production in Mexico is reportedly stepped up as well.

Ecstasy / MDMA

MDMA (3-4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine) is a synthetic, psychoactive drug chemically similar to the stimulant methamphetamine and the hallucinogen mescaline. Street names for MDMA include Ecstasy, Adam, XTC, hug, beans, and love drug.

It is one of the drugs known as “club drugs” for their frequent use in the nightlife scene of teens and young adults, chosen for its ability to create a euphoric state, reduce inhibitions, and create feelings of closeness and empathy. In 2005, it was the club drug most commonly abused, ahead of Rohypnol, GHB, and ketamine.

Ecstasy is mostly distributed in tablets. These tablets often contain other substances, such as methamphetamine, ketamine, caffeine, amphetamine, and MDA (3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine) – a substance much like ecstasy.

Ecstasy was made a Schedule I in 1998.

MDMA was, in fact, first synthesized at Merck in 1912, and was developed as a precursor to other substances with hemostatic properties – the ability to arrest bleeding. It was not tested pharmacologically, and was called Methylsafrylamin.

In the 1967, Dr. Alexander Shulgin who has invented, according to the Sunday Herald, “80% of the world’s known hallucinogenic drugs,” resynthesized MDMA, having heard it was considered a stimulant but didn’t act like one. During testing, he discovered its power to lower inhibition, and thinking it would be useful in psychotherapy, he provided samples to psychologists. At that time, the far-reaching and dangerous side effects were unknown. Thereafter, it was used legally for a period, including for treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), until it was made illegal in 1985.

Ketamine

Ketamine is a rave drug. This drug is most commonly used as a veterinary tranquilizer. Ketamine is also know as Special K, and other street names. Keep reading to learn the effects of ketamine use and more information on ketamine (Special K) in this article.

Ketamine is common at raves, where it is often mixed with ecstasy to produce a hallucinogenic effect. Ketamine is also sometimes used as a date rape drug, since it can “freeze” a victim for a short period of time, making her or him mostly unaware of the surroundings and detached with limited movement. Ketamine is most often obtained through smuggling from Mexico or from theft at a veterinary office. It cannot be obtained legally for home use in any circumstance.

Street names for ketamine

There are several names that ketamine is known by. Some of them are trade names, used by veterinarians and medical professionals. These trade names are ketalar, ketajet and ketaset. There are also street names, used by users and dealers. Here is a list of street names for ketamine:

Special K, Ket, Vitamin K, Super acid, Baby food, Special LA Coke, Jet, God.

When one uses ketamine, one goes to what users call the “K-hole” or to “K-land.” A user is known as a “K-head.”

Effects of ketamine use

Most ketamine users feel as though they are having an out of body experience. Vivid imagery is common to ketamine use. Combined with ecstasy, the feeling is supposed to be enhanced. Ketamine is a hallucinogen that produces generally mellow effects. However, as with many hallucinogens, flashbacks are likely with ketamine exposure. In fact, ketamine can create larger problems with flashbacks than other hallucinogens. Many ketamine users remain convinced that they have met God or other heavenly beings. Mechanical buzzing in the ears, amnesia and effects similar to intoxication are common. Additionally, coordination and judgment can be affected for hours after the usage.

Some of the more sinister effects of the use of Special K include dizziness, nausea, anxiety, insomnia, blurred vision and ataxia. Short term memory loss and shortened attention span are also effects of Ket use. Ketamine use also causes problems when used chronically or in case of an overdose. Cardiac arrest and cessation of breathing are two of the more dangerous effects. Both of these can lead to brain damage and death in cases of large doses of Special K or continued use. It is also important to note that short-term immobilization is an effect of ketamine use.

Getting Special K

Ketamine is most readily available at raves. The drug is not produced as a clandestine drug, since it is complicated to make and the ingredients are usually not close to hand. Most people obtain ketamine for sale by stealing it. It is produced for veterinary and limited human use (strictly controlled) in liquid form, but can be dried (using a microwave, oven or the air) and ground into a powder form. When used illicitly, Special K is most often inhaled. It is not a drug that vets even “prescribe” for home use for pets. It is legally only used in strictly medical or veterinary settings.

Date Rape Drugs

Date rape drugs, such as GHB and rohypnol are substances specifically designed to impair and immobilize victims. Drugs used by sexual predators to make a victim less resistant are called date rape drugs. Keep reading to learn to protect yourself from date rape drugs.

There are three main date rape drugs: GHB, rohypnol and ketamine. Each of these drugs has such a slight taste that it is likely to go unnoticed, especially in flavored drinks such as soda and alcohol. All are clear and most commonly found in liquid form. There is no smell to warn victims, either.

GHB

GHB can induce amnesia, which is why it is one of the most popular date rape drugs. Victims do not have a clear memory of what happened. Additionally, it can be produced using common ingredients at home, which makes it cheap and easy to come by for sexual predators. Visual problems, dizziness, drowsiness and a dream-like state are effects of GHB. After the initial effects wear off (in about 15 minutes), nausea and vomiting can follow. Repeated exposure, as well as higher doses, can affect the body with the following problems:

Seizures, Slowing heart rate, Breathing problems, Coma, Death

GHB is legal only in very specific cases of narcolepsy.

Rohypnol

Rohypnol can also cause amnesia, as well as black out and confusion. Slurred speech, as well as other symptoms associated with drunkenness (such as decreased motor skills and visual distortion), are effects of rohypnol. Many victims mistakenly think that they are merely “terribly drunk,” when in fact they are victims of a date rape drug. A lower blood pressure can result, as well as extreme sleepiness. Stomach problems are very unpleasant side effects of rohypnol. Roypnol, though used in Europe and Mexico as an anesthetic, it is not legal for any use in the United States.

Ketamine

Ketamine, or “Special K” is a hallucinogen that can make the entire experience of date rape even more sinister and scary. Sight and sound are often distorted, and there is a loss of sense of time and identity, associated with feelings of having an out of body experience. Ketamine temporarily immobilizes victims so that they do not have proper muscle control. Most victims actually remain conscious throughout, but feel out of control because they cannot move. Ketamine can also cause other problems: nausea, trouble breathing, convulsions, coma and death. Ketamine is legal as an anesthetic, mainly for animals (and in some rare cases for humans). Most illicit ketamine is actually stolen from veterinary clinics.

Anabolic Steroids

History of Anabolic Steroids

Properly called anabolic/androgenic steroids, but also known as anabolic steroids or simply steroids, these drugs are often used in baseball and body building. Keep reading to discover the most commonly abused steroids, and history of anabolic steroids.

Anabolic/androgenic steroids are used medically to promote the growth of skeletal muscle – their anabolic effects and male sexual characteristics – their androgenic effects. When a male’s body produces too little testosterone, resulting conditions such as delayed puberty and some kinds of impotence, as well as body wasting in patients who have AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) can be treated by administration of anabolic steroids (as they will be referred to here).

In the United States, anabolic steroids are a prescription medication; that is, they are not sold over the counter (OTC). Drugs or substances that are not sold OTC are divided into five schedules, labeled with Roman numerals. Schedule I is for drugs for which there is no currently acceptable medical usage in the U.S. It includes, for example, heroin, LSD, and marijuana. For Schedules II -V, all drugs with medical use, the least restricted is Schedule V, which includes medications like cough medicines with codeine; the most restrictive is Schedule II, which includes highly addictive drugs like morphine, cocaine, and methadone. Anabolic steroids are placed in Schedule III.

The anabolic steroids that are most commonly abused according to the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) are:

Brand Name Chemical Substance Method of Administration

Anadrol oxymetholone oral

Deca-Durabolin nandrolone decanoate injectable

Depo-Testosterone testosterone cypionate injectable

Dianabol methandrostenolone oral

Durabolin nandrolone phenpriopionate injectable

Equipoise boldenone undecylenate injectable

Oxandrin oxandrolone oral

Winstrol stanozolol oral

Anabolic steroids are not the same as steroidal supplements, which are OTC substances legally available in stores such as health food stores. They include dehydroepian-drosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione, referred to in street talk as Andro. These supplements can be converted by the body into testosterone, but their effects and attendant side effects have not received the research attention that anabolic steroids have.

Anabolic Steroids History

The synthetic compounds called anabolic steroids were developed mainly as a treatment for low testosterone production (hypogonadism) that inhibits normal growth and development, as well as sexual function. This occurred in the late 1930s. During testing, the ability of anabolic steroids to encourage skeletal muscle growth in lab animals was noted. This led to the use of anabolic steroids by athletes including bodybuilders and weightlifters, and – of recent note (July, 2006) – baseball, track and field, and cycling. Suspicion surrounding Barry Bonds and his trainer Greg Anderson, Justin Gatlin, and Floyd Landis – respective practitioners of those three sports, are currently in the public eye as accusations about the use of anabolic steroids and other performance enhancing drugs circulate.

Concerned by the continuing use of these drugs, Congress passed the Anabolic Steroids Act of 2004, which was signed into law in October 2004 and which amended the Anabolic Steroids Control Act of 1990. Changes include modifying the definition of anabolic steroids to include additional substances, directing a review of the sentencing guidelines for offenses, and amending guidelines to allow for increased penalties. Also mandated are scientifically-based school programs to helps convey the harmful effects of anabolic steroid abuse.

Oxycodone

Oxycodone is an opiate, referred to medically as opioids and also called narcotics, and one of the important pain killers available in medical practice. This article contains information on the history of pain killers and leads up to Oxycodone and its history.

Pain killers are usually developed and marketed by pharmaceutical companies for general or specific healthcare applications. They are divided in the industry by whether they are available over the counter (OTC) or require a prescription, and all opiates, including oxycodone, are legally available only by prescription.

The DEA Drug Schedules

Drugs or substances that are not sold OTC – and therefore all opiates – are divided into five schedules, labeled with Roman numerals. Scheduling is based on evaluation of scientific and medical properties, as well as the following considerations:

Does the substance or drug have potential for abuse?

If there is evidence of abuse, what is the pattern of abuse, extent of abuse, and scope of abuse?

Is there evidence that it is currently being abused or diverted from legitimate use?

Is the substance or drug closely related to another drug or substance already known to have potential for abuse?

How extensive is the current knowledge of the substance’s action?

Does the substance pose a threat to public health?

Schedule I is for drugs for which there is no currently acceptable medical usage in the U.S. It includes, for example, the opioid heroin, as well as LSD and marijuana.

For Schedules II-V, all drugs with medical use:

Schedule V, the least restricted, includes drugs or substances with a low potential for abuse, and limited effects when abused. It includes medications like cough medicines with the opioid codeine.

Schedule IV, the next least restricted, includes drugs that are less addictive and potentially damaging than Schedule III, for example, the opioid marketed as Darvon®.

Schedule III, which follows the same pattern, includes codeine and hydrocodone with aspirin or acetaminophen.

Schedule II, the most restrictive of the legally available drugs, includes the opioids morphine, cocaine, and methadone, and also oxycodone and its combination forms with aspirin and acetaminophen.

Oxycodone, used alone and with aspirin and acetaminophen and with immediate and controlled release, is used to manage moderate to severe pain. The types are:

Controlled/Extended release: OxyContin®

Immediate release: OxyIR®, OxyFast®, Oxydose®, Roxicodone Intensol®, Roxicodone®

With aspirin: Endodan®, Percodan®

With acetaminophen: Endocet®, Percocet®, Roxicet®, Roxilox®, Tylox®

History of Opioids Leading up to Oxycodone

Grown as early as 3400 B.C., opium was cultivated by the Sumerians, Assyrians, Babylonians, and Egyptians. Opium was used as a narcotic by Hippocrates, introduced to Persia and India by Alexander the Great, and used as painkillers by Paracelsus during the Renaissance. In 1803, German Friedrich Sertuerner discovered morphine, and in 1843, a Scottish doctor, Dr. Alexander Wood, first administered it by injection with a syringe. Heroin was first synthesized in 1874, by an English scientist, C. R. Wright, and first sold by The Bayer Company in 1898. The patent for controlled release oxycodone was given in 1993. OxyContin entered the market in 1995, and its first full year of sales was 1996.

Opiates

Opiates and Their History

Opiates are prescription drugs that are not sold over the counter. This article will define what opiates are and offers the history of opiate use and abuse. Keep reading for more information and history associated with opiates such as Codeine and Hydrocodone.

Opiates, referred to medically as opioids and also called narcotics, make up many of the important pain killers available in medical practice. Pain killers are usually developed and marketed by pharmaceutical companies for general or specific healthcare applications. They are divided in the industry by whether they are available over the counter (OTC) or require a prescription, and all opiates are legally available only by prescription. Both categories of drugs can be abused.

Drugs or substances that are not sold OTC – and therefore all opiates – are divided into five schedules, labeled with Roman numerals. Scheduling is based on evaluation of scientific and medical properties, as well as the following considerations:

Does the substance or drug have potential for abuse?

If there is evidence of abuse, what is the pattern of abuse, extent of abuse, and scope of abuse?

Is there evidence that it is currently being abused or diverted from legitimate use?

Is the substance or drug closely related to another drug or substance already known to have potential for abuse?

How extensive is the current knowledge of the substance’s action?

Does the substance pose a threat to public health?

Schedule I is for drugs for which there is no currently acceptable medical usage in the U.S. It includes, for example, the opioid heroin, as well as LSD and marijuana.

For Schedules II-V, all drugs with medical use:

Schedule V, the least restricted, includes drugs or substances with a low potential for abuse, and limited effects when abused. It includes medications like cough medicines with the opioid codeine.

Schedule IV, the next least restricted, includes drugs that are less addictive and potentially damaging than Schedule III, for example, the opioid marketed as Darvon®.

Schedule III, which follows the same pattern, includes codeine and hydrocodone with aspirin or acetaminophen.

Schedule II, the most restrictive of the legally available drugs, includes the opioids morphine, cocaine, and methadone.

Here are some of the most often used opiates. There is a group of medicines used to treat more severe pain that combine NSAIDs and opioids. Combinations are not included in the chart.

Opioids

Anileridine Methadone

Buprenoprhine Morphine

Butorphanol Nalbuphine

Codeine Opium

Hydrocodone Oxycodone

Hydromorphone Oxymorphone

Levorphanol Pentazocine

Meperidine Propoxyphene

History of Opioids

Grown as early as 3400 B.C., opium was cultivated by the Sumerians, Assyrians, Babylonians, and Egyptians. Opium was used as a narcotic by Hippocrates, introduced to Persia and India by Alexander the Great, and used as painkillers by Paracelsus during the Renaissance. In 1803, German Friedrich Sertuerner discovered morphine, and in 1843, a Scottish doctor, Dr. Alexander Wood, first administered it by injection with a syringe. Heroin was first synthesized in 1874, by an English scientist, C. R. Wright, and first sold by The Bayer Company in 1898.

Inhalants

More than a million people used inhalants to get high just last year. By the time a student reaches the 8th grade, one in five will have used inhalants. Keep reading to learn what types of inhalants are being used, the health effects of inhalants, and inhalant use statistics.

Inhalants are drugs that are especially insidious exactly because they are so easily and legally obtained. An inhalant is basically a chemical compound that produces a vapor that can be inhaled, and that can produce a mind-altering effect. Most inhalants are legal substances bought at the grocery store, such as aerosol hairspray, white-out and markers. Even though they are easily bought and used, inhalant use can have some fairly severe effects. While inhalant use is mostly confined to teenagers, 22.8 million Americans have used inhalants, including adults.

Types of inhalants

There are four main types of inhalants: volatile solvents, gases, aerosols and nitrites.

Volatile solvents. Inhalants that fall under this category are items that are liquid, but that vaporize (put off a sort of “gas” or “strong smell”) at room temperature. Paint thinners, correction fluid, markers, gasoline and dry-cleaning fluids are all volatile solvent inhalants.

Gases. Gases are pretty much in vapor form at room temperature and otherwise. Sources for household gases used as inhalants include butane lighters, refrigerants, whipped cream dispensers and propane tanks. Medical gases can also be used as gas inhalants: chloroform, ether and nitrous oxide.

Aerosols. These are sprays that have propellants that push the product out. Spray paint, hairspray, vegetable oil cook sprays, air fresheners and fabric protection sprays are all examples of aerosol inhalants.

Nitrites. These, commonly known as “poppers” or “snappers” are a little harder to get. They include such inhalants as isobutyl nitrite, isoamyl nitrite and cyclohexyl nitrite.

Health effects of inhalant use

There are very real health effects associated with inhalant use. About 9,275 emergency room visits are due to inhalant use every year, but that does not fully allow for a grasp of the problem. The effects of inhalant use tend to add up, as a user becomes addicted. One of the fastest effects is a rapid high that is very similar to the feeling of being drunk: excitation, followed by drowsiness, lightheadedness and agitation. Nearly all inhalants can produce loss of sensation and unconsciousness when enough is inhaled. Continued inhalant use can lead to heart, liver, kidney and lung damage. Depression, disorientation, unhealthy weight loss, irritability and lack of coordination are all effects stemming from prolonged inhalant abuse.

Inhalant use statistics

Inhalant use represents a small portion of drug addiction (only 0.1 percent of treatment admissions), but it is nevertheless very real. Inhalant abuse is primarily noted among teenagers and young adults. Here are statistics regarding inhalant use:

68.7 percent of treated inhalant users are male

67.4 percent of inhalant users admitted to treatment are white

The average age of someone admitted to treatment programs for inhalants is 24

Nearly 2.3 million people reported inhalant use in the past year

About 638,000 people admit to using inhalants in the past month

Street names for inhalants

There are various names for inhalants on the street. Here are some of them:

Air blast, Poor man’s pot, Climax = isobutyl nitrate, Gluey = sniffing glue, Buzz bomb = nitrous oxide

The act of using inhalants is designated as gladding or bagging, and an inhalant user is galled a huffer.

GHB Usage, Analogs, Effects

Gama Hydroxybutric Acid, commonly known as GHB, is a highly addictive drug that is illegal in the United States. Find out more on how GHB is used, its analogs, its effects, and street names for GHB in this article. Keep reading for more on GHB usage, analogs, and effects.

In some countries GHB is used as a sleep aid, and many European countries recognize it as an anesthetic. However, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration outlawed nearly all use of the drug in 1990 for the United States. It is still used to treat a very rare form narcolepsy; this is its only approved use in the U.S. While GHB is used recreationally by some, especially on the rave party scene, it is most commonly known as a date rape drug that helps sedate victims for sexual predation.

GHB (Gama Hydroxybutric Acid) analogs

GHB also has several analogs, including GBL and BD that act as GHB substitutes. These are just as dangerous as GHB, and affect the body in ways similar to the way GHB affects the body. GHB and its analogs can be produced using the solvents found in paint stripper and some of chemicals found in adhesives and plastics. These can be dangerous, and, of course, one never truly knows what goes into any illicit drug created in a clandestine lab, as almost all GHB in the U.S. is produced. GHB and its analogs are difficult to detect, since they metabolize quickly. If you have been using GHB recreationally, or if you feel that you are a victim of the drug used for date rape, it is important to let medical personnel know as soon as possible so that they can test for any traces of it.

Effects of GHB use

Most GHB comes in the form of a liquid, so it is easy to use in a drink. Additionally, the salty or soapy taste can easily be masked by use in a drink. Those that use it recreationally either put GHB in their drinks or apply the liquid to their tongues. GHB can also be found in powder or tablet form, although these are not as common as the liquid form. Powder and tablet form GHB is usually taken orally, and it is mostly for recreational users on the club and rave scenes. The effects of GHB are relatively quick – usually within 15 minutes. The initial effects include euphoria and relaxation, as well as visual disturbances (which is why it is used by some for recreation). However, later effects include drowsiness, dizziness, respiratory problems, amnesia, coma and seizures. Most effects depend on the individual. The possibility for amnesia and the extreme drowsiness and dizziness are what make GHB ideal as a date rape drug.

Long term use of GHB (usually for recreation purposes) include seizure and coma. When combined with other drugs, difficulty breathing can occur, leading possibly to death. Withdrawal symptoms are usually severe for addicted GHB users: tremors, anxiety, sweating and insomnia.

Street names for GHB – Gama Hydroxybutric Acid

GHB comes by a few street names. These are interchangeable with GHB analogs as well.

G, Caps, Georgia home boy, Grievous bodily harm, Goop, Liquid X, Scoop,


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H. Michael Steinberg Esq.
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